Fluid overload and AKI after the norwood operation: The correlation and characterization of routine clinical markers
Weld J, Kim E, Chandra P, et al. Fluid Overload and AKI After the Norwood Operation: The Correlation and Characterization of Routine Clinical Markers [published online ahead of print, 2023 May 2]. Pediatr Cardiol. 2023;10.1007/s00246-023-03167-0. doi:10.1007/s00246-023-03167-0
The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation of different methods of assessing fluid overload and determine which metrics are associated with development of acute kidney injury (AKI) in the period immediately following Norwood palliation. This was a retrospective single-center study of Norwood patients from January 2011 through January 2021. AKI was defined using the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Patients were separated into two groups: those with AKI and those without. A logistic regression analysis was conducted with AKI at any point in the study period as the dependent variable and clinical and laboratory data as independent variables. Analysis was conducted as a stepwise regression. The coefficients from the logistic regression were then used to develop a cumulative AKI risk score. Spearman correlations were conducted to analyze the correlation of fluid markers. 116 patients were included, and 49 (42.4%) developed AKI. The duration of open chest, duration of mechanical ventilation, need for dialysis, need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and inpatient mortality were associated with AKI (p ≤ 0.05). Stepwise logistic regression demonstrated the following significant independent associations AKI: age at Norwood in days (p < 0.01), blood urea nitrogen (p < 0.01), central venous pressure (p = 0.04), and renal oxygen extraction ratio (p < 0.01). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the logistic regression was 0.74. The fluid markers had weak R-value. Urea, central venous pressure, and renal oxygen extraction ratio are associated with AKI after the Norwood operation. Common clinical metrics used to assess fluid overload are poorly correlated with each other for postoperative Norwood patients.