COVID-19 in children with Down Syndrome: Data from the Trisomy 21 Research Society Survey
David Emes, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Epidemiology and Public Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK.
Anke Hüls, Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
Nicole Baumer, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Mara Dierssen, Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, 08003 Barcelona, Spain.
Shiela Puri, Down Syndrome Medical Interest Group UK, Leeds Community Healthcare NHS Trust, Teddington TW11 9PS, UK.
Lauren Russell, Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
Stephanie L. Sherman, Department of Human Genetics, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
Andre Strydom, Department of Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Neuroscience, King's College London, London WC2R 2LS, UK.
Stefania Bargagna, Department of Developmental Neuroscience, IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris, 56128 Pisa, Italy.
Ana Cláudia Brandão, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, ACB, Sao Paulo 05652-900, SP, Brazil.
Alberto C. Costa, Departments of Pediatrics and of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, ACSC, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.
Patrick T. Feany, Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
Brian Allen Chicoine, Advocate Aurora HealthFollow
Sujay Ghosh, Cytogenetics and Genomics Research Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700 073, West Bengal, India.
Anne-Sophie Rebillat, Institut Jérôme Lejeune, 75015 Paris, France.
Giuseppina Sgandurra, Department of Developmental Neuroscience, IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris, 56128 Pisa, Italy.
Diletta Valentini, Pediatric Unit, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, 00146 Rome, Italy.
Tilman R. Rohrer, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Saarland University Medical Center, 66421 Homburg/Saar, Germany.
Johannes Levin, Department of Neurology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 80539 Munich, Germany.
Monica Lakhanpaul, Population, Policy and Practice Department, Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, UCL, London WC1N 1EH, UK.
On Behalf Of The Trisomy Research Society Covid-Initiative Study Group
Emes D, Hüls A, Baumer N, et al. COVID-19 in Children with Down Syndrome: Data from the Trisomy 21 Research Society Survey. J Clin Med. 2021;10(21):5125. Published 2021 Oct 31. doi:10.3390/jcm10215125
Adults with Down Syndrome (DS) are at higher risk for severe outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) than the general population, but evidence is required to understand the risks for children with DS, which is necessary to inform COVID-19 shielding advice and vaccination priorities. We aimed to determine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in children with DS. Using data from an international survey obtained from a range of countries and control data from the United States, we compared the prevalence of symptoms and medical complications and risk factors for severe outcomes between DS and non-DS paediatric populations with COVID-19. Hospitalised COVID-19 patients <18 years with DS had a higher incidence of respiratory symptoms, fever, and several medical complications from COVID-19 than control patients without DS <18 years. Older age, obesity, and epilepsy were significant risk factors for hospitalisation among paediatric COVID-19 patients with DS, and age and thyroid disorder were significant risk factors for acute respiratory distress syndrome. Mortality rates were low in all paediatric COVID-19 patients (with and without DS), contrasting with previous findings in adults with DS (who exhibit higher mortality than those without DS). Children with DS are at increased risk for more severe presentations of COVID-19. Efforts should be made to ensure the comprehensive and early detection of COVID-19 in this population and to identify children with DS who present comorbidities that pose a risk for a severe course of COVID-19. Our results emphasize the importance of vaccinating children with DS as soon as they become eligible.
Advocate Medical Group, Adult Down Syndrome Center