The presentation, etiologies, pathophysiology, and treatment of pulmonary renal syndrome: A review of the literature
Martin K, Deleveaux S, Cunningham M, et al. The presentation, etiologies, pathophysiology, and treatment of pulmonary renal syndrome: A review of the literature. Dis Mon. 2022;68(12):101465. doi:10.1016/j.disamonth.2022.101465
Pulmonary renal syndrome (PRS) is a constellation of different disorders that cause both rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. While antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease are the predominant causes of PRS, numerous other mechanisms have been shown to cause this syndrome, including thrombotic microangiopathies, drug exposures, and infections, among others. This syndrome has high morbidity and mortality, and early diagnosis and treatment is imperative to improve outcomes. Treatment generally involves glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents, but treatment targeted to the underlying disorder can improve outcomes and mitigate side effects. Familiarity with the wide range of possible causes of PRS can aid the clinician in workup, diagnosis and early initiation of treatment. This review provides a summary of the clinical presentation, etiologies, pathophysiology, and treatment of PRS.