Advanced cardiovascular imaging for the diagnosis of mycobacterium chimaera prosthetic valve infective endocarditis after open-heart surgery: A contemporary systematic review
Sanchez-Nadales A, Diaz-Sierra A, Mocadie M, Asher C, Gordon S, Xu B. Advanced Cardiovascular Imaging for the Diagnosis of Mycobacterium chimaera Prosthetic Valve Infective Endocarditis After Open-heart Surgery: A Contemporary Systematic Review. Curr Probl Cardiol. 2022;47(12):101392. doi:10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2022.101392
Mycobacterium chimaera is an opportunistic and emerging pathogen, which has been recognized to cause prosthetic valve infective endocarditis and disseminated infection following open-chest cardiac surgery with certain contaminated heater-cooler systems. Diagnostic evaluation of suspected prosthetic valve infective endocarditis due to Mycobacterium chimaera is challenging and requires a very high index of suspicion. This systematic review aims to evaluate prosthetic valve infective endocarditis due to Mycobacterium chimaera. Based on the current literature review, transesophageal echocardiography and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography are the most common imaging modalities used to establish the diagnosis. Based on twenty-two published cases, the reported cases of Mycobacterium chimaera endocarditis have occurred almost entirely in males. Within this cohort, the patients developed endocarditis on average 2.7 years after exposure to contaminated heater-cooler systems during cardiac surgery. Mycobacterium chimaera infection is associated with significant morbidity and mortality.