Fungal endocarditis with severe vegetations of the aortic valve and septic emboli secondary to total parenteral nutrition
Labchuk A, Hamwi M, Han A, Khan M, Stone A. Fungal Endocarditis With Severe Vegetations of the Aortic Valve and Septic Emboli Secondary to Total Parenteral Nutrition. Cureus. 2022;14(12):e32357. Published 2022 Dec 9. doi:10.7759/cureus.32357
Fungal endocarditis is a rare but serious complication of fungemia. It is most commonly caused by Candida species. Risk factors include prosthetic heart valves, injection drug use, and indwelling central venous catheters. In comparison to bacterial endocarditis, fungal endocarditis is more commonly associated with arterial embolization, likely due to the larger size of vegetations. Unfortunately, diagnosis is often delayed, contributing to significant morbidity and mortality. Relapses are common, and extended treatment is often warranted. Antifungal agents and valve replacement are the recommended treatments. However, in-hospital mortality remains at 36%. For these reasons, it is critical to have a high index of suspicion and not delay appropriate therapy.