Therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia following TCHP chemotherapy in two HER2+ breast cancer patients

Navroop Gill
Anjana Chandran, Advocate Aurora Health
Brian Adley, Advocate Aurora Health
Jacob Bitran, Advocate Aurora Health

Internal Medicine, Advocate Lutheran General Hospital

Pathology, Advocate Lutheran General Hospital

Oncology, Advocate Lutheran General Hospital


Increased risk for the development of therapy-induced myeloid leukemia following the treatment of breast cancer has typically been associated with the use of regimens containing anthracyclines or alkylating agents. We present two cases of estrogen receptor-positive/progesterone receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (ER+/PR+/HER2+) breast cancer patients, treated with a non-anthracycline, non-alkylating regimen of trastuzumab, carboplatin, docetaxel, and pertuzumab (TCHP), who developed therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) within 30 months of the completion of treatment. Both patients had marked cytogenetic abnormalities, including deletions of chromosomes 5 and 7, and highly aggressive disease that resulted in a poor prognosis. While platinum and taxane-based chemotherapy regimens have been previously linked to the development of t-AML or therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS) following treatment for ovarian cancer, they have not yet been shown to increase the risk of t-AML/t-MDS after their use for breast cancer therapy. As TCHP is widely used for the treatment of HER2/neu overexpressed breast cancer, these cases highlight the need to further evaluate the link between taxane and platinum-based chemotherapeutics for breast cancer and the development of t-AML/t-MDS.