An exploratory mixed methods study of experiences of interprofessional teams who received coaching to simultaneously redesign primary care education and clinical practice
Carney PA, Dickinson WP, Fetter J, Warm EJ, Zierler B, Patton J, Kirschner G, Crane SD, Shrader S, Eiff MP. An Exploratory Mixed Methods Study of Experiences of Interprofessional Teams Who Received Coaching to Simultaneously Redesign Primary Care Education and Clinical Practice. J Prim Care Community Health. 2021 Jan-Dec;12:21501327211023716. doi: 10.1177/21501327211023716. PMID: 34109864; PMCID: PMC8202267.
INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVES: Coaching is emerging as a form of facilitation in health professions education. Most studies focus on one-on-one coaching rather than team coaching. We assessed the experiences of interprofessional teams coached to simultaneously improve primary care residency training and interprofessional practice.
METHODS: This three-year exploratory mixed methods study included transformational assistance from 9 interprofessional coaches, one assigned to each of 9 interprofessional primary care teams that included family medicine, internal medicine, pediatrics, nursing, pharmacy and behavioral health. Coaches interacted with teams during 2 in-person training sessions, an in-person site visit, and then as requested by their teams. Surveys administered at 1 year and end study assessed the coaching relationship and process.
RESULTS: The majority of participants (82% at end of Year 1 and 76.6% at end study) agreed or strongly agreed that their coach developed a positive working relationship with their team. Participants indicated coaches helped them: (1) develop as teams, (2) stay on task, and (3) respond to local context issues, with between 54.3% and 69.2% agreeing or strongly agreeing that their coaches were helpful in these areas. Cronbach's alpha for the 15 coaching survey items was 0.965. Challenges included aligning the coach's expertise with the team's needs.
CONCLUSIONS: While team coaching was well received by interprofessional teams of primary care professionals undertaking educational and clinical redesign, the 3 primary care disciplines have much to learn from each other regarding how to improve inter- and intra-professional collaborative practice among clinicians and staff as well as with interprofessional learners rotating through their outpatient clinics.