Real-world effectiveness of burosumab in children with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets


Background: X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) is the most common cause of inherited rickets. Historically, XLH was treated with oral phosphate and calcitriol (conventional treatment). Burosumab, a fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) monoclonal antibody, was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2018 for XLH treatment. Nevertheless, conventional treatment of XLH continues to be recommended by some specialists due to lack of published experience with burosumab in the clinical setting. We compared laboratory and radiographic changes observed following transition from conventional therapy to burosumab in pediatric XLH patients as part of routine care.

Methods: This retrospective single-center study identified and retroactively studied twelve patients aged 1-18 years old with XLH previously treated with conventional therapy and transitioned to burosumab. Laboratory studies and radiographs were obtained routinely as standard of care during two treatment periods: (1) conventional therapy and (2) burosumab treatment. Laboratory values and radiologic rickets severity scores were compared between periods.

Results: All laboratory values demonstrated improvement following 1 month of burosumab treatment, findings which were sustained over the 2-year study period. Rickets severity scores and height z-scores also improved with burosumab. There were no serious adverse events with burosumab, and adverse events overall were very infrequent and mild. One patient developed an asymptomatic mild elevation of serum phosphate while taking burosumab resulting in a temporary pause in therapy.

Conclusions: Safety and effectiveness of burosumab in treatment of XLH were demonstrated as burosumab yielded statistically significant improvement in laboratory and radiographic markers of rickets and height compared to conventional therapy. A higher resolution version of the Graphical abstract is available as Supplementary information.

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