Predictors of incomplete aneurysm occlusion after treatment with the Pipeline Embolization Device: PREMIER trial 1 year analysis
Hanel RA, Monteiro A, Nelson PK, Lopes DK, Kallmes DF. Predictors of incomplete aneurysm occlusion after treatment with the Pipeline Embolization Device: PREMIER trial 1 year analysis [published online ahead of print, 2021 Oct 29]. J Neurointerv Surg. 2021;neurintsurg-2021-018054. doi:10.1136/neurintsurg-2021-018054
BACKGROUND: Flow diverters have revolutionized the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Nevertheless, some aneurysms fail to occlude with flow diversion. The Prospective Study on Embolization of Intracranial Aneurysms with the Pipeline Device (PREMIER) was a prospective, multicenter and single-arm trial of small and medium wide-necked unruptured aneurysms. In the current study, we evaluate the predictors of treatment failure in the PREMIER cohort. METHODS: We analyzed PREMIER patients who had incomplete occlusion (Raymond-Roy >1) at 1 year angiographic follow-up and compared them with those who achieved Raymond-Roy 1, aiming to identify predictors of treatment failure. RESULTS: 25 aneurysms demonstrated incomplete occlusion at 1 year. There was a median reduction of 0.9 mm (IQR 0.41-2.43) in maximum diameter between pre-procedure and 1 year measurements, with no aneurysmal hemorrhage. Patients with incomplete occlusion were significantly older than those with complete occlusion (p=0.011). Smoking (p=0.045) and C6 segment location (p=0.005) were significantly associated with complete occlusion, while location at V4 (p=0.01) and C7 (p=0.007) and involvement of a side branch (p<0.001) were significantly associated with incomplete occlusion. In multivariable logistic regression, significant predictors of incomplete occlusion were non-smoker status (adjusted OR 4.49, 95% CI 1.11 to 18.09; p=0.03) and side branch involvement (adjusted OR 11.68, 95% CI 3.84 to 35.50; p<0.0001), while C6 location had reduced odds of incomplete occlusion (adjusted OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.84; p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study are consistent with previous retrospective series and warrant consideration for technique adaptations to achieve higher occlusion rates. Further follow-up is needed to assess progression of aneurysm occlusion and clinical behavior in these cases.