Cumulative comorbid conditions influence mortality risk after staged palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome and variants
Backes ER, Afonso NS, Guffey D, et al. Cumulative comorbid conditions influence mortality risk after staged palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome and variants [published online ahead of print, 2022 Apr 2]. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2022;S0022-5223(22)00364-6. doi:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2022.01.056
Objective: Prematurity, low birth weight, genetic syndromes, extracardiac conditions, and secondary cardiac lesions are considered high-risk conditions associated with mortality after stage 1 palliation. We report the impact of these conditions on outcomes from a prospective multicenter improvement collaborative.
Methods: The National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative Phase II registry was queried. Comorbid conditions were categorized and quantified to determine the cumulative burden of high-risk diagnoses on survival to the first birthday. Logistic regression was applied to evaluate factors associated with mortality.
Results: Of the 1421 participants, 40% (575) had at least 1 high-risk condition. The aggregate high-risk group had lower survival to the first birthday compared with standard risk (76.2% vs 88.1%, P < .001). Presence of a single high-risk diagnosis was not associated with reduced survival to the first birthday (odds ratio, 0.71; confidence interval, 0.49-1.02, P = .066). Incremental increases in high-risk diagnoses were associated with reduced survival to first birthday (odds ratio, 0.23; confidence interval, 0.15-0.36, P < .001) for 2 and 0.17 (confidence interval, 0.10-0.30, P < .001) for 3 to 5 high-risk diagnoses. Additional analysis that included prestage 1 palliation characteristics and stage 1 palliation perioperative variables identified multiple high-risk diagnoses, poststage 1 palliation extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support (odds ratio, 0.14; confidence interval, 0.10-0.22, P < .001), and cardiac reoperation (odds ratio, 0.66; confidence interval, 0.45-0.98, P = .037) to be associated with reduced survival odds to the first birthday.
Conclusions: The presence of 1 high-risk diagnostic category was not associated with decreased survival at 1 year. Cumulative diagnoses across multiple high-risk diagnostic categories were associated with decreased odds of survival. Further patient accrual is needed to evaluate the impact of specific comorbid conditions within the broader high-risk categories.