Association of combustible and non-combustible tobacco use with clinically diagnosed adverse oral health outcomes among US adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2009-2014)


Advocate Illinois Masonic Hospital


Introduction: There is an established link between tobacco use and adverse oral health outcomes. However, there is a paucity of research exploring the effect of various tobacco products on clinically diagnosed adverse oral health outcomes.

Methods: Data were pooled from three cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: 2009-2010; 2011-2012; and 2013-2014 (n = 11,453). Multivariable logistic regressions examined the associations between periodontitis and dental caries with the type of tobacco product used (combustible, non-combustible or both).

Results: Overall, 42.3% of the study sample had any periodontitis, 7.8% had severe periodontitis and 21.7% had dental caries. There was a higher prevalence of periodontitis and caries among combustible tobacco users than non-combustible tobacco use; 62.1% of combustible tobacco smokers had any periodontitis, 17.1% had severe periodontitis, while 39.4% of adults with dental caries were dual users. Compared to non-smokers, combustible tobacco use increased the odds of any periodontitis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.28, 3.45) and severe periodontitis (aOR 2.62, 95% CI 1.90, 3.61). Compared to non-smokers, both combustible tobacco (aOR 2.11, 95% CI 1.61, 2.76) and non-combustible tobacco use (aOR 2.09, 95% CI 1.19, 3.66) increased the odds of dental caries.

Discussion and conclusions: In this study of US adults, combustible tobacco use was associated with periodontitis and dental caries, while non-combustible tobacco use was associated with dental caries. In addition to conducting extensive oral health screening among all smokers, oral health-care providers should counsel smokers on the need for smoking cessation.

Document Type


PubMed ID