Ischemic ST-segment depression maximal in V1-V4 (versus V5-V6) of any amplitude Is specific for occlusion myocardial infarction (versus nonocclusive ischemia)
Meyers HP, Bracey A, Lee D, et al. Ischemic ST-Segment Depression Maximal in V1-V4 (Versus V5-V6) of Any Amplitude Is Specific for Occlusion Myocardial Infarction (Versus Nonocclusive Ischemia) [published online ahead of print, 2021 Nov 15]. J Am Heart Assoc. 2021;e022866. doi:10.1161/JAHA.121.022866
Background Occlusion myocardial infarctions (OMIs) of the posterolateral walls are commonly missed by ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) criteria, with >50% of patients with circumflex occlusion not receiving emergent reperfusion and experiencing increased mortality. ST-segment depression maximal in leads V1-V4 (STDmaxV1-4) has been suggested as an indicator of posterior OMI.
Methods and Results We retrospectively reviewed a high-risk population with acute coronary syndrome. OMI was defined from prior studies as a culprit lesion with TIMI (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction) 0 to 2 flow or TIMI 3 flow plus peak troponin T >1.0 ng/mL or troponin I >10 ng/mL. STEMI was defined by the Fourth Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction. ECGs were interpreted blinded to outcomes. Among 808 patients, there were 265 OMIs, 108 (41%) meeting STEMI criteria. A total of 118 (15%) patients had "suspected ischemic" STDmaxV1-4, of whom 106 (90%) had an acute culprit lesion, 99 (84%) had OMI, and 95 (81%) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. Suspected ischemic STDmaxV1-4 had 97% specificity and 37% sensitivity for OMI. Of the 99 OMIs detected by STDmaxV1-4, 34% had depression, and only 47 (47%) had accompanying STEMI criteria, of which 17 (36%) were identified a median 1.00 hour earlier by STDmaxV1-4 than STEMI criteria. Despite similar infarct size, TIMI flow, and coronary interventions, patients with STEMI(-) OMI and STDmaxV1-4 were less likely than STEMI(+) patients to undergo catheterization within 90 minutes (46% versus 68%; =0.028).
Conclusions Among patients with high-risk acute coronary syndrome, the specificity of ischemic STDmaxV1-4 was 97% for OMI and 96% for OMI requiring emergent percutaneous coronary intervention. STEMI criteria missed half of OMIs detected by STDmaxV1-4. Ischemic STDmaxV1-V4 in acute coronary syndrome should be considered OMI until proven otherwise.