Discordance between estimated and measured changes in plasma volume among patients with acute heart failure
Swolinsky JS, Tuvshinbat E, Leistner DM, et al. Discordance between estimated and measured changes in plasma volume among patients with acute heart failure [published online ahead of print, 2021 Dec 8]. ESC Heart Fail. 2021;10.1002/ehf2.13739. doi:10.1002/ehf2.13739
Aims: In acute heart failure (AHF), changes of venous haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, haematocrit (Hct), and estimated plasma volume (ePV) have been proposed as surrogates of decongestion. These estimates are based on the theoretical assumptions that changes of Hb concentrations and Hct are driven by the intravascular volume status and that the intravascular Hb pool remains stable. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship of changes of measured plasma volume (mPV) with changes of Hb, Hct, and ePV in AHF.
Methods and results: We studied 36 AHF patients, who received two sequential assessments of mPV, measured red cell volume (mRCV) and measured total blood volume (mTBV) (48 h apart), during the course of diuretic therapy using a novel visible fluorescent injectate (VFI) technique based on the indicator dilution principle. Changes of ePV were calculated based on the Kaplan-Hakim or Strauss formula. AHF patients receiving diuretics (median intravenous furosemide equivalent 160 mg/48 h) displayed a wide range of changes of mPV (-25.4% to +37.0%). Changes in mPV were not significantly correlated with changes of Hb concentration [Pearson's r (r) = -0.241, P = 0.157], Hct (r = -0.307, P = 0.069), ePVKaplan-Hakim (r = 0.228, P = 0.182), or ePVStrauss (r = 0.237, P = 0.163). In contrast to theoretical assumptions, changes of mTBV were poorly correlated with changes of Hb concentrations and some patients displayed unanticipated variability of mRCV, suggesting an unstable intravascular red cell pool.
Conclusions: Changes of Hb or Hct were not reflective of directly measured changes of intravascular volume status in AHF patients. Basing clinical assessment of decongestion on changes of Hb or Hct may misguide clinical decision-making on an individual patient level.