Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix: Analysis of prognostic factors and patterns of metastasis
Gordhandas S, Schlappe BA, Zhou Q, et al. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix: Analysis of prognostic factors and patterns of metastasis. Gynecol Oncol Rep. 2022;43:101058. Published 2022 Aug 4. doi:10.1016/j.gore.2022.101058
Objectives: To describe characteristics and outcomes of patients with small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix (SCNCC) and determine the staging system most predictive of outcome-the two-tier (limited-stage [LS] vs. extensive-stage [ES]) or International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system.
Methods: Patients with SCNCC evaluated at our institution from 1/1/1990-6/30/2021 were included. Medical records were reviewed for variables of interest. Appropriate statistical tests were performed to determine associations. Survival curves were created using the Kaplan-Meier method. Concordance probability estimates (CPEs) were calculated to evaluate the prediction probability of the staging systems.
Results: Of 63 patients, 41 had LS and 22 ES SCNCC. Patients with ES disease were significantly older than those with LS disease (median, 54 and 37 years, respectively; p < 0.001). Smoking status, race, and history of HPV were not associated with stage or outcomes. Forty-eight patients had metastatic disease (24 [50%] at initial diagnosis). The most common first sites of metastasis were lung (n = 20/48, 42%), lymph nodes (n = 19/48, 40%), and liver (n = 13/48, 27%). Nine patients had brain metastasis (8 symptomatic at recurrence; 1 asymptomatic at initial diagnosis). Both staging systems were associated with progression-free and overall survival. Adjusted CPE found the FIGO staging system was more predictive of outcomes than the two-tier staging system.
Conclusions: Providers should have a low threshold to obtain brain imaging for patients with SCNCC, especially in the presence of visceral metastases. FIGO staging should be used to classify SCNCC. Further research is necessary to understand prognostic factors of this rare disease.