Non-transmural myocardial infarction associated with regional contractile function is an independent predictor of positive outcome: an integrated approach to myocardial viability
Di Bella G, Aquaro GD, Bogaert J, et al. Non-transmural myocardial infarction associated with regional contractile function is an independent predictor of positive outcome: an integrated approach to myocardial viability. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2021;23(1):121. Published 2021 Nov 1. doi:10.1186/s12968-021-00818-0
Background: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance permits assessment of irreversible myocardial fibrosis and contractile function in patients with previous myocardial infarction. We aimed to assess the prognostic value of myocardial fibrotic tissue with preserved/restored contractile activity.
Methods: In 730 consecutive myocardial infarction patients (64 ± 11 years), we quantified left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volumes, ejection fraction (EF), regional wall motion (WM) (1 normal, 2 hypokinetic, 3 akinetic, 4 dyskinetic), and WM score index (WMSI), and measured the transmural (1-50 and 51-100) and global extent of the infarct scar by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Contractile fibrotic (CT-F) segments were identified as those showing WM-1 and WM-2 with LGE ≤ or ≥ 50%.
Results: During follow-up (median 2.5, range 1-4.7 years), cardiac events (cardiac death or appropriate implantable defibrillator shocks) occurred in 123 patients (17%). At univariate analysis, age, LVEDV, LVESV, LVEF, WMSI, extent of LGE, segments with transmural extent > 50%, and CT-F segments were associated with cardiac events. At multivariate analysis, age > 65 years, LVEF < 30%, WMSI > 1.7, and dilated LVEDV independently predicted cardiac events, while CT-F tissue was the only independent predictor of better outcome. After adjustment for LVEF < 30% and LVEDV dilatation, the presence of CT-F tissue was associated with good prognosis.
Conclusions: In addition to CMR imaging parameters associated with adverse outcome (severe LV dysfunction, poor WM, and dilated EDV), the presence of fibrotic myocardium showing contractile activity in patients with previous myocardial infarction yields a beneficial effect on patient survival.