Systematic review of the evaluation and management of coronary pseudoaneurysm after stent implantation
Department of Internal Medicine, Advocate Illinois Masonic Medical Center
Pseudoaneurysm (PSA) formation is a rare but well-known complication of coronary stenting. It develops after a procedural perforation disrupts the integrity of the vessel wall but is contained by a single wall layer, usually pericardium, extravascular thrombosis and later fibrosis. Medical literature of PSA consists primarily of case reports. A systematic review of pseudoaneurysm after coronary stenting was performed to summarize its presentation, diagnostic imaging modalities, natural history, and management approaches. Clinical presentations range from asymptomatic to hemodynamic collapse, size from small to "giant," and treatment approaches from surgical or percutaneous exclusion to "watchful waiting" and imaging surveillance. Based on current information, a management algorithm is provided recommending urgent to emergent exclusion for symptomatic PSA, elective exclusion for large and giant PSA, and "watchful waiting" and periodic imaging surveillance for small to moderate sized PSA.