Time in therapeutic range significantly impacts survival and adverse events in destination therapy patients
Macaluso GP, Pagani FD, Slaughter MS, et al. Time in therapeutic range significantly impacts survival and adverse events in destination therapy patients. ASAIO J. Published online September 9, 2021. doi: 10.1097/MAT.0000000000001572.
The study aim was to examine the impact time in therapeutic range (TTR, International Normalized Ratio [INR] 2.0-3.0) has on survival and adverse events in patients receiving the HeartWare HVAD System in the ENDURANCE and ENDURANCE Supplemental Trials. Evaluable subjects (n = 495) had >1 INR value recorded 1-24 months postimplant and were categorized as: low TTR (10-39%), moderate TTR (40-69%), and high TTR (≥70%). Baseline characteristics, adverse events, and survival were analyzed. Low TTR patients experienced higher rates of major bleeding (1.69 vs. 0.54 events per patient year [EPPY]; p < 0.001), GI bleeding (1.22 vs. 0.38 EPPY; p < 0.001), stroke (0.47 vs. 0.17 EPPY; p < 0.001), thrombus requiring exchange (0.05 vs. 0.01 EPPY; p = 0.02), infection (1.44 vs. 0.69 EPPY; p < 0.001), and renal dysfunction (0.23 vs. 0.05 EPPY; p < 0.001) compared with high TTR. Moderate TTR had higher rates of major bleeding (0.75 vs. 0.54 EPPY; p < 0.001), thrombus requiring exchange (0.05 vs. 0.01 EPPY; p = 0.007), cardiac arrhythmia (0.32 vs. 0.24 EPPY; p = 0.04), and infection (0.90 vs. 0.69 EPPY; p = 0.001) compared with high TTR. Two year survival was greater among moderate and high versus low cohorts (Log-rank p = 0.001). The significant reduction in morbidity and mortality in destination therapy (DT) HVAD patients with well-controlled TTR (≥70%) emphasizes the importance of vigilant anticoagulation management.