Clinical features and prognosis of Type 2 Myocardial Infarction in acutely decompensated diabetic patients
Hritani AW, Jan MF, Schleis G, et al. Clinical Features and Prognosis of Type 2 Myocardial Infarction in Acutely Decompensated Diabetic Patients. Am J Med. 2018;131(7):820-828.
BACKGROUND: After the introduction of the universal definition of myocardial infarction, the incidence and diagnosis of type 2 myocardial infarction have risen dramatically, yet there are no clear guidelines on clinical management. Diabetic patients are at high risk for developing type 2 myocardial infarction when admitted in a decompensated state, and they are also at high risk for future cardiovascular events.
METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 1058 patients admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state between 2011 and 2016. Patients were included if they had cardiac troponin I measured within 24 hours of admission, were older than 18 years of age, and had no evidence of acute coronary syndrome on admission. Baseline characteristics, admission laboratory test results, major adverse cardiovascular events, cardiac stress testing, and coronary angiography data up to 1 year after admission were reviewed. Patients were categorized into 2 groups: those with and those without type 2 myocardial infarction. The study had 2 endpoints: mortality and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 1 year and an abnormal result on stress test or coronary angiography at 1 year.
RESULTS: Of the 845 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 133 patients (15%) had type 2 myocardial infarction on admission. Patients with type 2 myocardial infarction were at a significantly higher risk for mortality and MACE at 1 year than those without. Patients with type 2 myocardial infarction were also at higher risk for developing an abnormal result on stress test or coronary angiography within 1 year of admission as compared with those without type 2 myocardial infarction (40% vs 24%; odds ratio 2; P = .0699).
CONCLUSION: Acutely decompensated diabetic patients with type 2 myocardial infarction are at increased risk for death and MACE. These patients may also be at risk for undiagnosed coronary artery disease.