Thromboprophylaxis for children post-fontan procedure: Insights from the universe study
McCrindle BW, Michelson AD, Van Bergen AH, et al. Thromboprophylaxis for children post-fontan procedure: insights from the universe study. J Am Heart Assoc. 2021;10(22):e021765. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.120.021765.
Background Patients with single-ventricle physiology who undergo the Fontan procedure are at risk for thrombotic events associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The UNIVERSE Study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a novel liquid rivaroxaban formulation, using a body weight-adjusted dosing regimen, versus acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in children post-Fontan.
Methods and Results The UNIVERSE Study was a randomized, multicenter, 2-part, open-label study of rivaroxaban, in children who had undergone a Fontan procedure, to evaluate its dosing regimen, safety, and efficacy. Part A was the single-arm part of the study that determined the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics and safety of rivaroxaban in 12 participants before proceeding to part B, whereby 100 participants were randomized 2:1 to open-label rivaroxaban versus ASA. The study period was 12 months. A total of 112 participants were enrolled across 35 sites in 10 countries. In part B, for safety outcomes, major bleeding occurred in one participant on rivaroxaban (epistaxis that required transfusion). Clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding occurred in 6% of participants on rivaroxaban versus 9% on ASA. Trivial bleeding occurred in 33% of participants on rivaroxaban versus 35% on ASA. For efficacy outcomes, 1 participant on rivaroxaban in part B had a pulmonary embolism (2% overall event rate); and for ASA, 1 participant had ischemic stroke and 2 had venous thrombosis (9% overall event rate).
Conclusions In this study, participants who received rivaroxaban for thromboprophylaxis had a similar safety profile and fewer thrombotic events, albeit not statistically significant, compared with those in the ASA group.
Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier: NCT02846532.