Vedolizumab does not increase perioperative surgical complications in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, cohort study


Advocate Illinois Masonic Medical Center


Background/Aims: Biologics are increasingly used to manage ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). However, even with earlier usage of biologic therapy, a significant proportion of patients will require surgery. Vedolizumab is an anti-integrin antibody that is increasingly used given that it is more gut selective and associated with fewer side effects. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of vedolizumab compared to anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy on the perioperative complications in patients undergoing surgery for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Methods: Retrospective review of patients treated for IBD at a tertiary care center between 2013 and 2017. Rates of 30- and 90-day complications for patients on vedolizumab were compared to patients on anti-TNF regimens.

Results: One hundred and ninety-nine patients met inclusion criteria with 87 (43%) patients undergoing surgery for CD, 111 (55.8%) for UC and 1 (0.5%) for indeterminate colitis. Thirty-eight patients received preoperative vedolizumab and 94 received anti-TNF. There were more males and lower body mass index in the anti-TNF group. There was no significant difference in overall rate of complications at 30 or 90 days. There was a trend for lower leak rate vedolizumab group (0% for vedolizumab vs. 2.1% for anti-TNF at 30 days, P= 1.00; 0% for vedolizumab vs. 1.1% for anti-TNF at 90 days, P= 1.00). Multivariate analysis showed low albumin ( < 3.6 g/dL) at the time of surgery to be a significant risk factor for overall and infectious complications at 90 days (odds ratio, 3.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-8.79; P= 0.021).

Conclusions: Perioperative vedolizumab does not increase rates of perioperative complications in IBD surgery when compared to anti-TNF medications.

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