Change in the mortality trend of hospitalized patients with Clostridium difficile infection: A nation-wide study


Hepatology, Aurora St. Luke's Medical Center


Background According to the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), mortality in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been rising since 2009, and an upward trend in mortality has been noted. Although there have been studies exploring the incidence of CDI and mortality in the national database, those studies were limited to one particular year. With the advent of newer modalities of diagnosis and treatment for CDI, the recent multiyear trend in disease-specific outcomes from large administrative databases is unknown. Objective To study the recent trend in nationwide hospital admissions and mortality along with hospital outcomes. Methods We queried the identified National Inpatient Sample from 2007 to 2011 to identify patients of age >18 years, with a discharge diagnosis of CDI identified by the International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition (ICD-9), clinical modification codes 008.45, respectively. Results We identified a decline in CDI mortality to 2.67% in 2011 as compared to 3.83% in 2007 (P<0.0001) with CDI as the primary discharge diagnosis and a downward trend in all-cause mortality from 9.2% in 2007 to 7.9% in 2011 (P<0.0001). We identified an upward trend in CDI-related hospital discharges from 2007 (N=325,022) to 2011 (N=333498). Hospital discharges with CDI as a primary discharge diagnosis also increased from 2007 (N=104,123) to 2011 (123,898). The mean length of stay decreased from 7.16 days in 2007 to 6.40 days in 2011 (P 0.0001). CDI was noted to be more common in the elderly (61-80), with a mean age of 68 years. Patients were of Caucasian descent (67%), female (64%), and primarily a Medicare payer (69%). Mean hospital charges increased from $31,551 to 35,654$ (P .04). Of interest, CDI was noted to be more common in large bed-sized non-teaching hospitals (57%) than large bed-sized teaching hospitals (42%). In terms of the geographical distribution of CDI, the southern states of the US had an increased incidence of CDI (36%) and the west coast (16%) had the least incidence. Conclusion Our study shows an improved trend in-hospital mortality outcomes and a decreased length of stay likely related to the advancement in CDI treatments. Hospital charges were increased from 2007 to 2011 in spite of a decrease in hospital length of stay.

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