Coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factor analysis in an age-stratified hospital population with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Levinson DJ, Abugroun A, Daoud H, Abdel-Rahman M. Coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factor analysis in an age-stratified hospital population with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Int J Cardiol Hypertens. 2020 Oct 14;7:100056. doi: 10.1016/j.ijchy.2020.100056. PMID: 33447777; PMCID: PMC7803040
Objectives: Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are at higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) particularly at a younger age. We sought to determine the effect of risk factors on the prevalence of CAD in age stratified hospitalized patients with SLE.
Methods: The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) was queried for hospitalized patients with SLE during the years 2010-2015, and a control group without SLE. The study sample was stratified by age, 18-35 years, 36-55 years, and adults >55 years. The effect of SLE and traditional Framingham risk factors on the prevalence of CAD were assessed. Dominance analysis allowed for ranking of CAD risk factors in each age group.
Results: A total 167,466 patients were matched to an equal number of controls. 88.8% were women, 48.5% Caucasian and 29% African-American. In lupus patients 18-35 years prevalent risk factors included hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hypercoagulability and CKD. Diabetes and depression ranked least important. In middle and older patients, traditional risk factors were dominant. In adults >55 years the prevalence of CAD appears higher in Caucasians whereas in young patients 18-35 years, African Americans are dominant.
Conclusion: CAD in the young adult patient with SLE is represented predominately by an African-American population and it is dominated by a hypercoagulable state and a less significant role for diabetes. In the lupus cohort over 55 years, which is predominantly Caucasian, SLE specific factors are less significant.