Myocardial work in Stage 1 and 2 hypertensive patients
Jaglan A, Roemer S, Perez Moreno AC, Khandheria BK. Myocardial work in Stage 1 and 2 hypertensive patients. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2021;22(7):744-750. doi:10.1093/ehjci/jeab043
AIMS: Myocardial work (MW) is a novel parameter that can be used in a clinical setting to assess left ventricular (LV) pressures and deformation. We sought to distinguish patterns of global MW index in hypertensive vs. non-hypertensive patients and to look at differences between categories of hypertension.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty-five hypertensive patients (mean age 65 ± 13 years; 30 male) and 15 controls (mean age 38 ± 12 years; 7 male) underwent transthoracic echocardiography at rest. Hypertensive patients were subdivided into Stage 1 (n = 32) and Stage 2 (n = 33) hypertension based on 2017 American College of Cardiology guidelines. Exclusion criteria were suboptimal image quality for myocardial deformation analysis, reduced ejection fraction, valvular heart disease, intracardiac shunt, and arrhythmia. Global work index (GWI), global constructive work (GCW), global wasted work (GWW), and global work efficiency were estimated from LV pressure-strain loops utilizing proprietary software from speckle-tracking echocardiography. LV systolic and diastolic pressures were estimated using non-invasive brachial artery cuff pressure. Global longitudinal strain and LV ejection fraction were preserved between the groups with no statistically significant difference, whereas there was a statically significant difference between the control and two hypertension groups in GWI (P = 0.01), GCW (P < 0.001), and GWW (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Non-invasive MW analysis allows better understanding of LV response under conditions of increased afterload. MW is an advanced assessment of LV systolic function in hypertension patients, giving a closer look at the relationship between LV pressure and contractility in settings of increased load dependency than LV ejection fraction and global longitudinal strain.