Factors Affecting the Degree of Angular Remodeling in Stent-Assisted Coiling of Bifurcation Aneurysms
Saied A, Elsaid N, Joshi K, et al. Factors affecting the degree of angular remodeling in stent-assisted coiling of bifurcation aneurysms. Interv Neurol. 2020;8(2-6):220-230. doi: 10.1159/000502058
Background: Stent-assisted coiling (SAC) leads to significant changes in the vascular angle altering the bifurcation geometry and the hemodynamics at the bifurcation apex. It is believed that the stent alone exerts this effect, but other possible factors have not been studied.
Purpose: To study the factors contributing to angular remodeling following SAC of bifurcation aneurysms including the anatomical, stent-related, and coil-related factors.
Materials and Methods: We reviewed 43 basilar and carotid bifurcation aneurysms treated by SAC using Neuroform EZ (n = 28), Enterprise (n = 8), and Lvis Jr. (n = 7) stents. The bifurcation angle between the mother and stented daughter vessel was measured in 4 settings: pretreatment, poststenting, postcoiling, and at delayed follow-up (6-12 months). The degree of stent-induced angular remodeling was calculated by subtracting the poststenting bifurcation angle from the pretreatment one, while the coil-induced angular remodeling was calculated as the difference between the postcoiling and poststenting bifurcation angle. The immediate postprocedural degree of angular remodeling is the sum of the stent- and coil-induced angular remodeling. We studied the effect of several factors including the pretreatment bifurcation angle, aneurysm site, diameter of parent vessel, stent type, stent length in the daughter vessel, postoperative actual in situ coil size, and packing density.
Results: The mean degree of stent-induced and coil-induced angular remodeling was 10.2 (0-47) and 4.53 (-7 to 30), respectively. The immediate postprocedural and delayed angular remodeling was 14.8 (-4 to 47) and 4.75 (-12 to 40), respectively. The degree of immediate remodeling was significantly affected by the actual in situ coil size (p = 0.017), and the pretreatment bifurcation angle (p = 0.024). Linear regression was carried out and the pretreatment bifurcation angle was defined as a predictor. The degree of delayed remodeling is significantly affected only by the pretreatment bifurcation angle (p = 0.011).
Conclusion: Immediate angular remodeling following SAC of bifurcation aneurysms can happen after stenting or coiling or both. This is the first study reporting the role of the coils as an additional factor beside the stent in inducing immediate angular changes; this effect is correlated to the size of the coils. The pretreatment bifurcation angle is the most consistent factor affecting the degree of both immediate and delayed angular remodeling.