Intraparenchymal hemorrhage after evacuation of chronic subdural hematoma: A case series and literature review
Krueger EM, Gustin AJ, Gustin PJ, Jaffa Z, Farhat H. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage after evacuation of chronic subdural hematoma: a case series and literature review. World Neurosurg. 2021;155:160-170. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2021.08.077.
BACKGROUND: Intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH), possibly due to reperfusion, after evacuation of a cranial chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) is a known phenomenon. However, it is sparingly reported and not well understood.
METHODS: An illustrative case series is presented. A literature review was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines to identify all previously reported cases.
RESULTS: A total of 48 cases were analyzed. Males were 85.4% of the population, and the mean age was 67.5 years. Pre-existing head trauma and hypertension were the most common comorbidities. Headache was a presenting symptom in 60.4% of cases. Midline shift was explicitly stated in 54.2% of cases. Initial burr hole alone was performed 75.0% of the time, whereas craniotomy alone was performed in 16.7% of cases. Any initial craniotomy patients were associated with a modified Rankin Scale score of 5 (P = 0.03). The IPH was located in the cerebral hemisphere in 62.5% of cases and more likely to occur ipsilateral to a unilateral cSDH (P = 0.02). The IPH occurred a mean 1.9 days after surgery, and 50.0% occurred within 24 hours of initial intervention. The median modified Rankin Scale at discharge was 2. The mortality rate was 25%. Lastly, a multifactorial reperfusion pathophysiology was proposed.
CONCLUSION: IPH after cSDH evacuation is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Prompt recognition, regulating blood pressure, controlling the amount and rate of extra-axial fluid drained, and a meticulous surgical technique are critical to optimize the care of patients with cSDH and reduce the rate of postoperative IPH.