The Pediatric American Pain Society Patient Outcomes Questionnaire (Pediatric APS-POQ): Development and initial psychometric evaluation of a brief and comprehensive measure of pain and pain outcomes in hospitalized youth


Advocate's Children's Hospital


Pediatric pain assessment in the hospital traditionally involves the patient's self-report of pain intensity using a numeric rating scale, which does not capture the complexity of the pain experience. No valid, comprehensive measure of pain in hospitalized youth exists. This study was designed to develop and conduct initial psychometric testing of the Pediatric American Pain Society Patient Outcomes Questionnaire (Pediatric APS-POQ), a comprehensive patient-reported measure of pain and pain outcomes in hospitalized youth. A multidisciplinary group of pediatric pain researchers and clinicians collaborated to adapt the adult APS-POQ Revised to pediatrics, including a patient-report and parent proxy version. The adapted measures were administered to 218 pediatric inpatients (age M = 13.4 years, 56% female) and 214 of their parents (80% mothers) at 4 US children's hospitals. The measure was feasible to administer within the inpatient setting and was acceptable and understandable to pediatric patients and their parents. Internal consistency was adequate for both patient-report and parent proxy (α = 0.77). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the following 6 domains, consistent with the adult measure: pain intensity, functional interference, emotional response, side effects, perceptions of care, and usual pain. Additional research is needed to further support the reliability and validity of this measure in diverse clinical populations. PERSPECTIVE: To reduce the impact of pain on hospitalized youth, pediatric pain assessment must move beyond ratings of pain intensity. The Pediatric APS-POQ provides a brief but comprehensive assessment of pain and pain outcomes in hospitalized children and adolescents, which will allow for greater individualization in hospital-based pain management and quality improvement purposes.

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