Technical modifications that might improve long-term outcome of the ross procedure in children


The Heart Institute for Children, Advocate Children's Hospital


BACKGROUND: Failure of the pulmonary autograft (PVA) following the Ross procedure (RP) has discouraged its widespread use and led to modifications or alternatives to the procedure. We sought to analyze whether certain technical modifications could improve results of the RP in children.

METHODS: Sixty-nine patients (median age 12 years, range 0.25 to 17.9) underwent the RP between 01/1996 and 12/2018. Concomitant Konno procedure was performed on 20/69 (29%). Prior interventions included balloon valvuloplasty in 30/69 (44%), and/or surgical valvuloplasty in 39/69 (57%). Technical modifications included utilizing the native aortic root for external annuloplasty, implanting the autograft using uniplanar horizontal sutures through the aortic wall, normalizing the sinotubular junction and wrapping the native root remnant around the PVA.

RESULTS: Operative mortality was 1/69 (1.5%), with no late death. No patient had neoaortic valvar stenosis and 7/68 (10%) had mild regurgitation on discharge echocardiogram. At latest follow-up (median 9.4 years, range 0.4 - 21.3) there was no significant change in the latest follow up Z scores of annulus, sinus or sinotubular junction diameters when compared to those at discharge. Three patients (4.4%) required late autograft replacement, two PVA repair, and two resection of pseudoaneurysm. Actuarial freedom from PVA replacement was 87% at 20 yrs. Freedom from right ventricular outflow tract catheter reintervention or reoperation was 83% and 80% respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Technical modifications of the RP used in this cohort might successfully prolong the life of the PVA without compromising its growth, an important advantage in pediatric patients.

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