Association of smoking status and recurrence of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer among patients managed with blue light cystoscopy


Advocate Aurora Research Institute


PURPOSE: Smoking has a strong causal association with bladder cancer but the relationship with recurrence is not well established. We sought to assess the association of smoking status on recurrence of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) in a contemporary cohort of patients with predominantly high-risk, recurrent NMIBC managed with photodynamic enhanced cystoscopy.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of patients with NMIBC included in a multi-institutional registry. Our primary exposure of interest was smoking status. Our primary outcome was first recurrence of NMIBC. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate recurrence free probabilities and Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate the impact of smoking status on recurrence free survival.

RESULTS: Our analytic cohort included 723 adults with bladder cancer, 11.5% with primary NMIBC and 88.5% with recurrent NMIBC. The majority of patients were white, male, and had high-risk NMIBC (72.6%). 52.6% of included patients were former smokers and 12.7% were current smokers. During the three-year study period, there was a NMIBC recurrence in 259 of the 723 patients (35.8%). The 1- and 3-year probability of recurrence was 19% and 44%, respectively. The grade and stage of recurrences were 28.9% LG Ta, 34.4% HG Ta, 15.8% pure CIS, 0.3% LG T1, 15.4% HG T1, and 5.4% unknown. After adjustment for a priori clinical and demographic factors, smoking status had no significant association with recurrence.

CONCLUSION: Smoking status was not significantly association with recurrence in a study of patients with predominantly high-risk recurrent NMIBC managed with photodynamic enhanced cystoscopy.

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