Clinicopathological criteria predictive of recurrence following bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy Initiation in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: Retrospective cohort study
Plasek J, Weissert J, Downs T, Richards K, Ravvaz K. Clinicopathological criteria predictive of recurrence following bacillus calmette-guérin therapy initiation in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: retrospective cohort study. JMIR Cancer. 2021;7(2):e25800. doi: 10.2196/25800
BACKGROUND: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is currently the most clinically effective intravesical treatment for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), particularly for patients with high-risk NMIBC such as those with carcinoma in situ. BCG treatments could be optimized to improve patient safety and conserve supply by predicting BCG efficacy based on tumor characteristics or clinicopathological criteria.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess the ability of specific clinicopathological criteria to predict tumor recurrence in patients with NMIBC who received BCG therapy along various treatment timelines.
METHODS: A total of 1331 patients (stage Ta, T1, or carcinoma in situ) who underwent transurethral resection of a bladder tumor between 2006 and 2017 were included. Univariate analysis, including laboratory tests (eg, complete blood panels, creatinine levels, and hemoglobin A1c levels) within 180 days of BCG therapy initiation, medications, and clinical and demographic variables to assess their ability to predict NMIBC recurrence, was completed. This was followed by multivariate regression that included the elements of the Club Urológico Español de Tratamiento Oncológico (CUETO) scoring model and variables that were significant predictors of recurrence in univariate analysis.
RESULTS: BCG was administered to 183 patients classified as intermediate or high risk, and 76 (41.5%) experienced disease recurrence. An abnormal neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio measured within 180 days of induction BCG therapy was a significant predictor (P=.047) of future cancer recurrence and was a stronger predictor than the CUETO score or the individual variables included in the CUETO scoring model through multivariate analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: An abnormal neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio within 180 days of BCG therapy initiation is predictive of recurrence and could be suggestive of additional or alternative interventions.