Optical coherence tomography use in idiopathic intracranial hypertension
Malhotra K, Padungkiatsagul T, Moss HE. Optical coherence tomography use in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Ann Eye Sci. 2020 Mar;5:7. doi: 10.21037/aes.2019.12.06. Epub 2020 Mar 15. PMID: 32405617; PMCID: PMC7220123
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition in which elevated pressure in the cerebrospinal fluid can lead to optic nerve head (ONH) dysfunction and subsequent visual impairment. Physicians are currently limited in their ability to monitor and manage this condition, as clinical symptoms and exam findings are often delayed in response to changes in intracranial pressure. In order to find other biomarkers of disease, researchers are using imaging modalities such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) to observe microscopic changes in the eye in this condition. OCT can create 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional high definition images of the retina of the ONH and has been used to study various conditions such as glaucoma and multiple sclerosis. Numerous studies have used OCT in IIH as well, and they have shown that certain retinal layers and the ONH change in thickness and shape in both the short and long term with intracranial pressure changes. OCT is a promising modality for clinical and scientific evaluation of IIH as it is a noninvasive and practical tool to obtain in depth images. This review will discuss how OCT can be used to assess a patient with IIH, both before and after treatment, along with its limitations and future applications.