Comparison and use of allograft bone morphogenetic protein versus other materials in ankle and hindfoot fusions


Foot and Ankle Surgeon, Orthopedics and Sports Medicine, BayCare Clinic


Bone grafting is a common procedure in foot and ankle surgery. Because autogenous graft use results in comorbidity to the patient, the search has been ongoing for the ideal substitute. A novel processing technique for allograft using bone marrow, which retains many of the growth factors, has shown promise in the spinal data and early reports of foot and ankle surgery. We performed a retrospective, comparative study of patients undergoing hindfoot and ankle arthrodesis, with a total of 68 patients included. Of the 68 patients, 29 (42.65%) received a bone morphogenetic protein allograft and 39 (57.35%) did not. The patient demographics and social and medical history were similar between the 2 groups and both groups had a similar time to union (p = .581). Of the 29 patients in the bone morphogenetic protein allograft group, 3 (10.3%) experienced nonunion and 4 (13.8%) developed a complication. Of the 39 patients undergoing other treatment, 7 (17.9%) experienced nonunion and 14 (35.9%) developed a complication. The difference for nonunion was not statistically significant (p = .5). However, the difference in the overall complication rate was statistically significant (p = .04). We found that this novel bone graft substitute is safe and can be used for foot and ankle arthrodesis.

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