Identifying characteristics and outcomes in youth with obesity and developmental disabilities
Rubin MB, Miller CM, Bauer SC, Ariza AJ, Binns HJ. Identifying characteristics and outcomes in youth with obesity and developmental disabilities. Disabil Health J. Published online September 10, 2020:100988.
BACKGROUND: Youth with developmental disability are at increased risk of obesity; literature focusing on the two is rare.
OBJECTIVE: To identify characteristics and outcomes of youth presenting for obesity care having a disability as compared to without.
METHODS: A medical record review of youth aged 2-18 years initiating obesity care 2013-2015 at a tertiary care obesity management program. Youth were grouped by disability status to identify differences in presenting characteristics and factors associated with a reduction in body mass index (BMI) percent of the 95th BMI percentile (BMIp95) over 12 months. Logistic regression (LR) models examined associations with BMIp95 drop (<5-points versus ≥5-points) for each disability group.
RESULTS: Of 887 subjects, 253 (28.5%) had a disability. At presentation, youth with disability were more often (p < 0.01) male (58.5% versus 47.9%), had birth weight <2500 g (14.1% versus 8.4%), had a father who was not obese (61.6% versus 47.4%), and were on weight influencing medications. Overall, 182 subjects (20.5%) completed 12-month follow-up. At follow-up, the with disability group (n = 63) had mean -2.3 (SD 10.7) BMIp95 change (p = 0.679); youth having a motor disability less often had ≥5-point BMIp95 drop (odds ratio 0.15, 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.59). At follow-up, the no disability group (n = 119) had mean -2.9 (SD 8.5) BMIp95 change; youth identified as having initial severe obesity status and not having a parent with diabetes more often had ≥5-point BMIp95 drop.
CONCLUSION: Youth with developmental disabilities were as successful in obesity care as those without disabilities. Predictors of success differed between the groups.