Comparison of clinical outcomes among intensive care unit patients receiving one or two grams of ceftriaxone daily


Department of Pharmacy Services, Department of Critical Care Medicine, Infectious Diseases Section, Aurora St. Luke's Medical Center


Intensive care unit (ICU) patients may experience ceftriaxone underexposure, but clinical outcomes data are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of ceftriaxone dosing on clinical outcomes among ICU patients without central nervous system (CNS) infection. A retrospective study of ICU patients receiving intravenous, empirical ceftriaxone for non-CNS infections was conducted. Patients ≥18 years of age who received ≤2 g of ceftriaxone daily for ≥72 h were included and categorized as receiving ceftriaxone 1 g or 2 g daily. The primary, composite outcome was treatment failure, defined as inpatient mortality and/or antibiotic escalation due to clinical worsening. Propensity score matching was performed based on the probability of receiving 2 g of ceftriaxone daily. Multivariable logistic regression determined the association between ceftriaxone dose and treatment failure in a propensity-matched cohort. A total of 212 patients were included in the propensity-matched cohort. The most common diagnoses (83.0%) were pneumonia and urinary tract infection. Treatment failure occurred in 17.0% and 5.7% of patients receiving 1 g and 2 g daily, respectively (P = 0.0156). Overall inpatient mortality was 8.5%. Ceftriaxone 2 g dosing was associated with a reduced likelihood of treatment failure (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.190; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.059 to 0.607). Other independent predictors of treatment failure included sequential organ failure assessment score (aOR = 1.440; 95% CI = 1.254 to 1.653) and creatinine clearance at 72 h from ceftriaxone initiation (aOR = 0.980; 95% CI = 0.971 to 0.999). Therefore, ceftriaxone at 2 g daily, when used as appropriate antimicrobial coverage, may be appropriate for ICU patients with lower mortality risk.

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