Impact of mandatory infectious diseases consultation and real-time antimicrobial stewardship pharmacist intervention on Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia bundle adherence


Advocate Lutheran General Hospital, Advocate South Suburban Hospital, Advocate Trinity Hospital, Advocate Illinois Masonic Medical Center, Advocate Condell Medical Center, Advocate Good Shepherd Hospital


Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of infectious diseases consultation (IDC) and a real-time antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) review on the management of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB).

Methods: This retrospective study included adult inpatients with SAB from January 2016 to December 2018 at 7 hospitals. Outcomes were compared between 3 time periods: before mandatory IDC and AMS review (period 1), after mandatory IDC and before AMS review (period 2), and after mandatory IDC and AMS review (period 3). The primary outcome was bundle adherence, defined as appropriate intravenous antimicrobial therapy, appropriate duration of therapy, appropriate surveillance cultures, echocardiography, and removal of indwelling intravenous catheters, if applicable. Secondary end points included individual bundle components, source control, length of stay (LOS), 30-day bacteremia-related readmission, and in-hospital all-cause mortality.

Results: A total of 579 patients met inclusion criteria for analysis. Complete bundle adherence was 65% in period 1 (n = 241/371), 54% in period 2 (n = 47/87), and 76% in period 3 (n = 92/121). Relative to period 3, bundle adherence was significantly lower in period 1 (odds ratio [OR], 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.93; P = .02) and period 2 (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.20-0.67; P = .0009). No difference in bundle adherence was noted between periods 1 and 2. Significant differences were seen in obtaining echocardiography (91% vs 83% vs 100%; P < .001), source control (34% vs 45% vs 45%; P = .04), and hospital LOS (10.5 vs 8.9 vs 12.0 days; P = .01). No differences were noted for readmission or mortality.

Conclusions: The addition of AMS pharmacist review to mandatory IDC was associated with significantly improved quality care bundle adherence.

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