White matter-governed superior frontal sulcus surgical paradigm: A radioanatomic microsurgical study-part I


Department of Neurosurgery, Aurora Neuroscience Innovation Institute, Aurora St. Luke's Medical Center


BACKGROUND: Frontal subcortical and intraventricular pathologies are traditionally accessed via transcortical or interhemispheric-transcallosal corridors.

OBJECTIVE: To describe the microsurgical subcortical anatomy of the superior frontal sulcus (SFS) corridor.

METHODS: Cadaveric dissections were undertaken and correlated with magnetic resonance imaging/diffusion-tensor imaging-Tractography. Surgical cases demonstrated clinical applicability.

RESULTS: SFS was divided into the following divisions: proximal, precentral sulcus to coronal suture; middle, 3-cm anterior to coronal suture; and distal, middle division to the orbital crest. Anatomy was organized as layered circumferential rings projecting radially towards the ventricles: (1) outer ring: at the level of the SFS, the following lengths were measured: (A) precentral sulcus to coronal suture = 2.29 cm, (B) frontal bone projection of superior sagittal sinus (SSS) to SFS = 2.37 cm, (C) superior temporal line to SFS = 3.0 cm, and (D) orbital crest to distal part of SFS = 2.32 cm; and (2) inner ring: (a) medial to SFS, U-fibers, frontal aslant tract (FAT), superior longitudinal fasciculus I (SLF-I), and cingulum bundle, (b) lateral to SFS, U-fibers, (SLF-II), claustrocortical fibers (CCF), and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and (c) intervening fibers, FAT, corona radiata, and CCF. The preferred SFS parafascicular entry point (SFSP-EP) also referred to as the Kassam-Monroy entry point (KM-EP) bisects the distance between the midpupillary line and the SSS and has the following coordinates: x = 2.3 cm (lateral to SSS), y ≥ 3.5 cm (anterior to CS), and z = parallel corona radiata and anterior limb of the internal capsule.

CONCLUSION: SFS corridor can be divided into lateral, medial, and intervening white matter tract segments. Based on morphometric assessment, the optimal SFSP-EP is y ≥ 3.5 cm, x = 2.3 cm, and z = parallel to corona radiata and anterior limb of the internal capsule.

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