Endovascular treatment of peripheral vascular disease


Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) affects about 27 million people in North America and Europe, accounting for up to 413,000 hospitalizations per year with 88,000 hospitalizations involving the lower extremities and 28,000 involving embolectomy or thrombectomy of lower limb arteries. Many patients are asymptomatic and, among symptomatic patients, atypical symptoms are more common than classic claudication. Peripheral arterial disease also correlates strongly with risk of major cardiovascular events, and patients with PAD have a high prevalence of coexistent coronary and cerebrovascular disease. Because the prevalence of PAD increases progressively with age, PAD is a growing clinical problem due to the increasingly aged population in the United States and other developed countries. Until recently, vascular surgical procedures were the only alternative to medical therapy in such patients. Today, endovascular practice, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with or without stenting, is used far more frequently for all types of lower extremity occlusive lesions, reflecting the continuing advances in imaging techniques, angioplasty equipment, and endovascular expertise. The role of endovascular intervention in the treatment of limb-threatening ischemia is also expanding, and its promise of limb salvage and symptom relief with reduced morbidity and mortality makes percutaneous transluminal angioplasty/stenting an attractive alternative to surgery and, as most endovascular interventions are performed on an outpatient basis, hospital costs are cut considerably. In this monograph we discuss current endovascular intervention for treatment of occlusive PAD, aneurysmal arterial disease, and venous occlusive disease.

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