Publication Date



P value, statistics, confidence interval, effect size, clinical significance, research hypothesis, analysis


If recent experiences shared among the biostatistician community are indicative of a sea change in research, then a most-welcome culture shift in dialogue surrounding the proper use and interpretation of the P value, which measures statistical probability, is underway. This editorial strives to offer guidance for researchers who would like to incorporate more comprehensive reporting in their research, namely, a broader discussion that goes beyond looking at the P value by itself and includes effect size estimates, confidence intervals, and clinical implications when interpreting quantitative results. Another evolving development in clinical research is the preferred language when referring to results that were close to, but did not reach, strictly defined “statistical significance.” While all of this may seem simple, the details and nuances can be complicated; working closely with a biostatistician when reporting and interpreting study results is advisable and encouraged.



June 20th, 2023


July 11th, 2023


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