Publication Date



quality of life; COVID-19; patient-centered care



Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are used in individuals experiencing long-term effects from COVID-19 infection, or Long COVID, to evaluate the quality of life and functional status of these individuals. However, little is known about which PROMs are being utilised and the psychometric properties of these PROMs. Our purpose was thus to explore which PROMs are used in Long COVID patients and to discuss the psychometric properties of the PROMs.


For this rapid review, a systematic literature search was performed in the PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL databases. The found studies were screened using the PRISMA flowchart. We then performed study quality appraisal and assessed the psychometric properties of the found PROMs.


Per the systematic literature search and after removal of duplicates, 157 publications were identified for individual screening. After screening and eligibility assessment, 74 articles were selected for our review. In total, 74 PROMs were used and primarily comprised quality of life, fatigue, breathlessness, mental health, and smell/taste issues in COVID “long haulers.” Five studies used newly developed, COVID-19-specific PROMs. We assessed the psychometric properties of the 10 most-used PROMs. The majority were found to be reliable and valid instruments. EQ-5D-5L was the most popular and highly rated PROM.


We assessed PROMs used in Long COVID patients and evaluated their psychometric properties. EQ-5D-5L was the most favourably rated PROM. PROMs addressing mental health issues are crucial in managing anxiety and depression in Long COVID patients. New COVID-specific PROMs assess functional status and smell/taste perception and show great utilisation potential in olfactory training at COVID smell clinics. However, many reviewed PROMs currently lack sufficient analysis of their psychometric properties. Therefore, future research needs to examine these measures. (J Patient Cent Res Rev. 2024;11:36-50.)

Barilaite_Appendix_A.pdf (184 kB)
Appendix A

Barilaite_Supplemental_Table_S1.pdf (468 kB)
Online Supplemental Table S1

Barilaite_Supplemental_Table_S2.pdf (221 kB)
Online Supplemental Table S2




March 6th, 2023


August 22nd, 2023


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