Publication Date



multiple myeloma, vaccination, influenza, pneumococcal, hospitalization, supportive care



Common reasons for hospitalization and death in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) are infections. As patients with MM are living longer and are treated with immunomodulatory drugs, there is a need to immunize against vaccine-preventable diseases and ultimately determine the efficacy of these vaccines. We evaluated vaccination practice patterns in MM patients at our health system using electronic medical records and data analytics.


This institutional review board-approved study retrospectively reviewed patients with MM who visited the health system from May 2012 to May 2014. Data collected included demographics, influenza vaccination (FV) and pneumonia vaccination (PV) history, hospitalization episodes and associated costs, and duration of survival. Patients were considered PV-positive if vaccinated within 5 years prior to study. FV was defined as optimal (two FV in 2012–2014), suboptimal (one FV in 2012–2014) or none (in 2012–2014).


Of 411 MM patients, 55% were male and 85% Caucasian. Nearly 58% received PV in the past 5 years. FV was 15% optimal, 52% suboptimal and 33% none. A total of 444 hospitalizations involving 204 patients were observed over 2-year follow-up. More than $23 million was incurred from hospitalizations in the 2-year study period. There was no statistically significant difference in all-cause hospitalization and overall survival by FV and PV status.


Despite recommendations of vaccination in multiple myeloma, our cohort had low rates of influenza and pneumonia vaccination. FV and PV status did not show any significant association with additional hospitalization or overall survival in this pilot study. Future prospective studies are needed to ascertain the immunological and clinical efficacy and effectiveness of these vaccines in immunosuppressed patients.




August 22nd, 2016


January 27th, 2017


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