Publication Date



simulation, resuscitation, medical education, code team, leader identification, pediatric training


Prompt and clear code team leader identification is vital in effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and pediatric trainees often have limited experience in these scenarios. This project sought to develop a tangible object that provided clear leader identification and assisted in code team management and simulated team training. A Code Team Leader Card (CTLC) was designed to provide clear leader identification while simultaneously providing a cognitive aid via integration of pediatric advanced life support (PALS) algorithms. Additionally, CTLC served to occupy the leader’s hands to limit their ability to intervene on procedural tasks. The CTLC was incorporated into pediatric resident simulation training, and pre- and postintervention survey data were analyzed. Analysis particularly focused on whether “a leader was clearly identified by all team members.” The relationship between CTLC implementation and consistent leader recognition was evaluated using chi-squared test, and secondary qualitative data were obtained via debriefing sessions.

Pediatric residents completed 131 surveys prior to CTLC implementation and 41 surveys after implementation. Consistent code team leader recognition increased significantly from 61.8% (81 of 131) pre-CTLC to 80.5% (33 of 41) after introduction of CTLC (P = 0.027). Participants commented on the benefits of CTLC during debriefing sessions. Use of a CTLC significantly improved leader recognition during simulated CPR. Inclusion of PALS algorithms led to normalization and increased utilization of these adjunct materials. The CTLC provided a secondary benefit of occupying the leader’s hands, thereby allowing that person to focus on overseeing the team rather than assisting with procedural tasks.

Appendix A.pdf (592 kB)
Online Appendix A




February 2nd, 2021


June 3rd, 2021


To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.