Publication Date



hepatocellular carcinoma, cardiac metastases, recurrence, hepatitis, multimodality imaging, dyspnea


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is primary hepatic malignancy with a high incidence of recurrence. The risk of recurrence directly correlates to patient’s overall prognosis. Management of advanced HCC involves a combination of surgical resection, locoregional therapy, and systemic treatment. Distant metastases are rare, and intraventricular cardiac metastases are even more infrequent. This brief review details an illustrative case of cardiac metastasis after curative treatment of primary HCC and then summarizes the literature on risk factors, treatment options, and patient prognosis in the setting of distant metastases from HCC. Prognosis of metastasis to the heart is generally poor, and available evidence emphasizes the importance of maintaining regular posttreatment screening for metastases in patients with HCC. Given the variable presentation and high risk of recurrence, it is critical to have individualized multimodality treatment plans.




May 3rd, 2021


December 6th, 2021


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