Risk stratification of acute kidney injury (AKI) following ureteral stent insertion for colorectal surgery


Aurora Medical Center, Kenosha


Introduction and objectives:Ureteral stents have long been utilized during colorectal resections to assist in the identification of ureters intraoperatively and mitigate risk of ureteral injury. As these procedures have shifted toward robot-assisted laparoscopic methods, lighted stents have increasingly been used. The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) following bilateral ureteral stent placement has been reported to be as high as 41.9%. We sought to identify our single-institution risk and determine the extent to which age, sex, and stent type affected incidence of AKI.

Methods:A retrospective analysis was performed at a single community hospital of all open and robotic-assisted laparoscopic colorectal surgeries from October 2012 to April 2022. If requested, ureteral stents were placed bilaterally by a urologist and later removed by the surgeon. Non-lighted stents used were 5 Fr whistle-tip (BARD); lighted stents were 6 Fr with a fiberoptic core (STRYKER). Kidney failure was described as a rise of creatinine to ≥ 1.5 times the preoperative value, per KDIGO guidelines.

Results:633 consecutive colorectal surgeries were evaluated, with no stents placed in 237 cases, non-lighted stents placed in 137 cases, and lighted stents placed in 259 cases. No ureteral injuries were observed. Overall incidence of AKI for non-stented surgeries was 0.8% vs 5.8% for non-lighted stents and 5.8% for lighted stents. Patient age was the most significant factor in AKI incidence: for patients under 60, there was no statistical difference in AKI incidence for stented vs non-stented procedures (2.2% vs 1.1%). For patients over 60, the risk of AKI was 10.5% for stented vs 0.7% for non-stented. Female patients had statistically significant risk differences, with AKI incidence of 7.1% stented vs 0.0% non-stented. AKI completely resolved in all cases, regardless of cohort.

Conclusions:In patients under age 60, the use of stents was not associated with an increased risk of AKI. For women and those over 60, stents pose a higher risk of transient AKI. Overall incidence of AKI in our larger and single-institution community hospital population was significantly lower than reported in other studies. No statistical difference was observed, overall, in AKI incidence between lighted and non-lighted stents.

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